In addition, respondents reported that there is no staff training on how to handle important gender dimensions which affect the vertical transmission of HIV from mothers to their infants, such as inequality in ownership and control of resources and decision-making power. This paper is based on a study conducted in one city in Tanzania, using a qualitative approach. Women could withdraw their participation from the study at all times without explanation and without any negative consequences for their continued healthcare. Another leader of a health facility added that: We found only one study suggesting that integrating perinatal PMTCT interventions with other healthcare services in low- and middle-income countries increases the proportion of pregnant women, mothers and infants receiving PMTCT intervention. This refers to engaging men to participate in health services together with their partners, or the male accompanying his spouse, especially in ANC settings for HTC.

All infants were HIV negative during their first PCR at six weeks, and remained seronegative throughout the entire breastfeeding period. Men address the above topics with a special focus on undergoing HCT. In addition, clients who attend as couples are given priority by allowing them not to stay in a queue. Value and effectiveness of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups in low- and middle-income countries: The government PMTCT documents were organized according to their respective categories—that is, guidelines, frameworks, and strategic plans—and reviewed for gender responsiveness using content analysis Elo and Kyngas It was further asserted that the set-up of VCT room s ensures privacy and confidentiality for the couples. In terms of their educational level, all FHEWs had studied further than grade 12, and four of them were married.

Cultural expectations and reproductive desires: We found no case of vertical transmission in our study cohort. The online version of this article doi: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Nevertheless, after receiving the invitation letter from health workers through the MSGs, nearly three-quarters According to our findings, adherence was higher in the first six pospartal months compared to later observation periods.

Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: Group session one focuses on reviewing information regarding PMTCT, protection from HIV transmission, partner involvement and becoming familiar with communication strategies for sensitive topics including HIV serostatus disclosure, mutual testing, alcohol use, stigma and avoiding IPV.


The study site selected was convenient, as the hospital is one of the facilities in the Bale zone, which launched PMTCT services when Ethiopia adopted the programme; yet, the partner testing rate is below the expected national level.

However, gender was only discussed in a few sections, and in many cases not in the key sections. Moreover, the documents lack equally important measures that might be implemented outside the health facility targeting barriers such as: Moderators of real-world effectiveness of smoking cessation aids: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

dissertation on pmtct

Therefore, it is more important to strengthen and continue the previous pmtcr, e. Challenges and opportunities for mainstreaming gender in Ministries of Health under sector-wide approaches.

LSHTM Research Online

This approach entails the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-positive pregnant women, also implying protection during breastfeeding for 12 months or longer.

Regarding our study visits, deviation of several weeks from the scheduled date was tolerated in order to achieve a sufficiently large cohort showing three follow-up visits until the end of breastfeeding. In the training sessions, health workers are urged to just encourage such women to try hard and disclose but fall short of helping them how to overcome the barriers Head of Unit, Health Facility C.

According to the FGD participants, barriers that emerged during the discussions were aligned with the abovementioned findings and grouped into five major categories, summarised as follows: The health system, e.

Safer infant feeding guidelines are not always followed, not all infants born to HIV-infected mothers are tested and treated [ 3 ] and mothers and newborns often miss postpartum clinic visits [ 9 ].

Improving the usage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in rural Tanzania

In South Africa, although progress has been recorded in the implementation of PMTCT programs, these improvements have, for the most part, occurred in urbanized areas, with rural areas remaining at unacceptably high levels of MTCT [ 11 ].

This finding is also consistent with that of the study conducted in Uganda, which stated that men with secondary education were more likely to be tested than those who had primary or no formal education. While important, focusing on couple counseling and HIV testing alone is inadequate. Similarly, after delivery, mothers are encouraged to attend the postnatal clinic PNC together with their spouses, during which a follow up is made on infant feeding.


However, those women whose disaertation partners cannot or refuse to attend with them, we as the health care providers do not do much.

At the same time, longitudinal cohorts over a period of 18 months are prone to LTFU, further decreasing the final sample size. Key informant interviews were also conducted with 26 leaders purposively sampled from three government health facilities in Mwanza city to understand their practices. Associated Data Data Availability Statement Data cannot be shared publicly, as participants were assured anonymity and confidentiality in the consent procedure, and the data contain identifying information.

This is more so in sub-Saharan African countries, including Tanzania, where HIV transmission is predominantly heterosexual Heggenhougen and Lugalla In a recent study conducted in Zambia, Okawa et al.

dissertation on pmtct

Associated factors to omtct adherence were analyzed using non-parametric tests due to small sample size and non- normally distributed variables. In our study, we aimed at mitigating those biases by not only relying on self-reported adherence, but combining it with measuring sufficiency of drug restock visits, as well as by creating a nonjudgemental interview setting within the study to facilitate honest reporting. Improving the usage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in rural Tanzania.

Documents which are gender transformative GRAS level 5 have content which includes ways to transform harmful gender norms, roles and relations. Besides, a strategy must be designed that helps partner tracing.

The scale differentiates between level 1 gender unequal2 gender blind3 gender sensitive4 gender specificand 5 gender transformative.