Thus, a combination of legumes with grains forms a well-balanced diet for vegetarians. Aflatoxins are the most common and probably the most significant mycotoxin in terms of human and animal health risk Bluma and Etcheverry, Type C has a second epoxy group at C-7, 8 or C-9, 10, include crotocin and baccharin produced by cephalosporium crotocingigenum. It is considered being the primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in mammals Barkai- Golan and Paster, Therefore it becomes very necessary to conduct this research to determine the microbial load, nutritional and microbiological qualities of this non-alcoholic drink called Kunu-Zaki in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State. A large number of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeast have been reportedly implicated in food spoilage as they use the carbohydrate content of the foods for undesirable fermentation processes Odunfa, ; Ojokoh et al. Likewise, Fumonisins are detrimental effects to the central nervous system, liver, pancreas, kidney, heart and lung to several domesticated and other animal species Bucci and Howard
Abegaz, The varieties of the drink made from sorghum is a milky light brown colour, while the one which is made from millet and maize is whitish in colour. Finely ground grains or high-tannin grains are less palatable to cattle. At present over TCT toxins are known, TCT is chemically classified based on the presence or absence of characteristic functional groups and their producer fungi Sudakin, It is also recommended for nursing mothers as it help increase the flow of their milk. Fusarium, alternaria Cladosporium, Pullularia, and Helminthosporium are a common genus of fungi that infect maize in the field Bankole and Mabekoje,
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Literature review of kunu zaki
Kunu can undergo spoilage as a result of ljterature factors such as microorganisms present in the drink that helps in the fermentation process studies have shown that kunu contains lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp and Leuconostoc sp and these organisms could cause the spoilage of the beverage.
Also found to reduce the milk in dairy cattle Akande et al.
Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop. Salmonella, Escherichia coli In developing Countries like Nigeria, reiew depend mostly on indigenous technology for food preparations especially food of plant origin. According to Odunfa and Adeyeye the traditional processing of Kunu involves the steeping revuew grains, wet milling with spices ginger, cloves pepperwet sieving and partial gelatinization of the slurry, followed by the addition of sugar and bottling.
Literature review of kunu zaki
The traditional production of Kunu is still at village technology level. It can also be taken hot with bean cakes and milk as desired by the consumer.
There is a need to guarantee an efficient system for monitoring the quality and safety of rice and rice products along the value chain, both for national consumption and for the global trade. H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate foods most especially ready to eat food.
Kunun-zaki processed from sorghum grains contains This research work is limited to the comparative analysis of microbial load of samples of literahure kunu found in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. Mycotoxins contamination attracts worldwide attention due to the huge economic losses incurred and their impact on human, domestic animals and trade Wu, ; Chilaka, et al.
It is produced by more than 50 fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus, A.
Fumonism was first isolated and identified in South Africa in the late s Gelderblom et al. The evidence of the co-occurrence of different metabolites from different origin, with a wide variety of concentration, is relevant and complex, especially if we consider the absence of detailed studies on the effects of the non-regulated metabolites on human health.
The data presented here corroborate a previous study which listed aflatoxins Reddy et al. In addition, ZEA has been associated to induce feminization such as enlarged nipples, testicular atrophy and swollen prepuce in young male pigs Richard, ; Whitlow and Hagler, Due to its hard and waxy covering, the grains need to be processed by cracking, rolling, or grinding. Currently, over different mycotoxins have been regiew In general, mycotoxins are categorized by fungal species, structure, and mode of action Darwish, et al.
Globally, over half of all sorghum is used for human consumption.
Field revoew do not compete well under normal and dry storage conditions, but may grow extensively in improperly preserved maize at high moisture Meronuck, For spiking experiments, 0. The major effects of storage fungi on grain, including discoloration, losses in germination, caking, nutritional changes, heating, and mustiness, musty odors.
Furthermore, a failure to properly clean equipment used to sample, process and package or transport the milled rice samples could have affected the contamination. Home Literature review of kunu zaki. It is marketed in all parts of Nigeria; the cereals used in its production are Millet, sorghum, and maize in decreasing order of preference Gaffa, et al.
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The preparation of this beverage has become technology in many homes in the rural communities and more recently in the urban areas where commercial production due to support from the rview through the poverty alleviation scheme, has helped o alleviate poverty among the people. At present over TCT toxins are known, TCT is chemically classified based on the presence or absence of characteristic functional groups and their producer fungi Sudakin, The occurrence of Fusarium metabolites was high; Moniliform was found in three samples with KSD zone having the highest value of 4.
A recent report by the FAO on mycotoxins shows over countries worldwide had set regulatory limits on allowable mycotoxins levels in human and animal feeds Warth, et al. The no-observed-effect level NOEL for adult is 0. Moench, is known kunuun a variety of names: High temperature and lack of refrigeration facilities in most developing countries have led to the inability to produce and store fresh kunun zaki.
When refined by the removal of the rveiew and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate.