Replace any vegetation you have removed. The final figure which will vary between 1 and is the local frequency. Because of these difficulties it is often simpler and more meaningful to obtain an indirect measure of how much light might reach the ground community e. You can tell when it is completely dry by weighing the crucible and soil, returning it to the oven for 10 minutes and weighing again and so on, until there is no change in weight after 10 minutes. The bulb surrounded by a wet fabric sleeve usually shows a lower temperature than the other because of the cooling effect of evaporation. At each site, vegetation data should be collected to allow for the calculation of percentage cover. Person 2 should make a note of when this is done, so that it can be taken it into account when they are calculating their infiltration rate.

This method is more time consuming than estimating percentage cover, but the results should be more accurate, as there is less risk of over-estimating some plants and under-estimating others. For a shorter distance, such as an investigation into how vegetation changes across a single dune slack, a continuous transect could be useful. Do not touch flotsam and jetsam on the beach or at the strandline Wear long sleeves and trousers, as sand dune vegetation such as marram grass can be prickly or sharp Beware of flying sand particles in the eye especially when it is windy Wear sturdy footwear and beware of rabbit holes and other uneven ground Do not enter the sea Always check tide times Procedure Carry out a pilot survey to identify a section of dunes where there are sand dunes running at least metres from the top of the beach inland. In a continuous transect, you record vegetation along the whole length of the transect line. There are many possible questions that could be investigated in this way. Wind speed An anemometer will measure wind speed directly. Take at least 10 quadrat samples in each area.


Use a random number table or random number generator on a calculator to select numbers from Wash your hands thoroughly after carrying out soils work.

This shows what percentage of plants at each station are from each community. Systematic sampling is used where the study area includes an environmental gradient. A transect is used to sample systematically along the environmental gradient.

biology coursework quadrats

Vegetation characteristics Random sampling Random sampling is used to select a sample that is unbiased. Count the first hit only. Systematic sampling Systematic sampling is used where the study area includes an quadrsts gradient. Ideally all measurements should be made at the same time of day, with the same biologh at each site. Humus content Soil humus content is measured by weighing a dry soil sample, burning the humus in the soil, then weighing the soil left.

Soil water content is measured by weighing the fresh soil sample, drying the sample, then weighing the dry soil.

Home Biology coursework quadrat. You could do this by placing a frame quadrats nex to the transect line, then turning the quadrat over on its side to take the next quadrat reading. Practical Skills in Biology 2. Each pair of random numbers can be used as x and y co-ordinates, using the metre interval markings oneach tape measure.

To maintain water pressure, person 1 should top up the infiltration tube if their coyrsework level falls below a certain point e.

Biology Fieldwork

Microclimate data including soil temperature, humidity and light levels can be used to support investigations into how vegetation changes across a dune system.

Person A sights the clinometer at the top of the ranging pole held by 8 and reads off the slope angle. This allows you to calculate the percentage frequency of each species for the whole sample area.


Temperature A simple mercury thermometer can be used.

It can be expressed as a percentage of the mass of the fresh soil sample. Find the mass of a heat resistant crucible.

Distribution of organisms – Revision 3 – National 5 Biology – BBC Bitesize

Many investigators over-estimate conspicuous plants especially those in flower and under-estimate inconspicuous plants. Different light meters vary in what they measure and their accuracy. But a typical m transect, perhaps sampled with a 1m 2 quadrat, would require many more samples than you could realistically take.

Air and soil temperature can all be measured. To collect data on abundance, count the first hit made by the pin on each different plant. Put a label marked in pencil inside the bag to quadgats the location and time. Or if using a Bunsen burner Using a tripod and gauze sheet, heat the soil sample in a crucible above a full-flame Bunsen burner for 30 minutes to 2 hours, until all the humus has been burnt off.

biology coursework quadrats

In a continuous transect, you record vegetation along the whole length of the transect line. In practice, this can be achieved by turning over a frame quadrat on the side perpendicular to the transect line as soon as you have finished recording at each point.

Take readings at the same height above the ground each time.

There are two ways of describing the amount of each species within a frame quadrat: Identify a slope unit between two breaks of slope. There are standard tables for the conversion.

biology coursework quadrats

Measuring the angle of a slope at regular intervals is more straightforward, but it tends to hide the small variations in slope which can be important on sand dunes.